Effects of Distance on Patient Linkage to Care at Msunduzi HIV Clinic in Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is highest in South Africa, specifically in the KwaZulu-Natal province. KwaXimba is a rural community located about 40 km from Durban, which is the provincial capital. The community travels primarily by walking and public transportation.
The top left map demonstrates a hot spot analysis (Getis-Ord Gi*) of HIV-infected patients that may or may not have linked into care at Msunduzi clinic. High positive values (hot spots) show areas where there is high confidence that patients are linked to care whereas low negative values (cold spots) show areas where there is high confidence that patients are less linked to care. Results are based on z-scores.
The top right map demonstrates a hot spot analysis for patients who are linked to care at the clinic, indicating continued effort by a patient to maintain their health by accessing treatment from the clinic (percent linked). To to arrive at his percentage, several steps along the HIV cascade of care were considered. Results are based on z-scores.
The bottom left map shows difficulty reaching the clinic due to road surface and slope. It is easier to for vehicles to traverse along paved or a packed surface and more difficult to travel along loose gravel. Public Also, steeper slopes are more difficult for pedestrians to walk. Areas in blue are to walk (low cost distance) and areas in red require increased effort (high cost distance).
Improving the Design and Operation of the Al Za'atari Refugee Camp, Jordan
These maps demonstrate Al Za'atari refugee camp in Jordan, which was establish in 2012 in response to the humanitarian crisis in Syria. Its population peaked with greater than 130,000 people but has since declined to resettlement elsewhere or back in Syria.
One way to consider population of the camp is by tent density, which is what can be seen by satellite imagery. The map on the left demonstrates tent density: District 12 has the highest tent density, followed by District 1. The advantage of applying surface density is that boundaries are continuous rather than defined by district boundaries.
Another way to consider population is by number of people per tent, which is determined by International Standards. In the case of these maps, Al Za'atari refugee camp does not uniformly meet both Sphere and United Nations (UNHCR) minimum space requirements per person. The map on the right demonstrates that the 45-square meter (Sphere) requirement is not widely implemented and exists amongst exclusively along the borders of the cams as well as in the center, as is indicated by blue and green shades on the map. However, the yellow shades indicate areas meeting the reduced 30 square meter requirement (UNHCR). Finally, areas that meet no space requirements are indicated in red. Generally, people do not have much space—it is cramped.
Planning Logistics of Humanitarian Supplies Warehouses in Ethiopia
Humanitarian relief requires efficient delivery of food, water and other assistance to disaster-affected populations. There are several reasons to calculate travel time based on road surface and distance rather than by speed limits. Travel speed indicates maximum legal travel speed and often varies between rural and urban environments and across various land used types, which can become more pronounced in scenarios with large distances between the origin and destination. Road surface provides a more accurate representation of spatial accessibility by accounting of influential attributes; for example, especially during inclement weather and with respect to election.
The map on the left demonstrates buffer regions ranging from (23) facility distribution points (FDPs) located within one hours to (131) FDPs located greater than 10 hours away. Cumulatively, there are 510 FDPs located within fifteen hours of a warehouse.
Referring the the map on the right, some warehouses are likely operating over capacity. Most notably, Dire Dewa not only services the greatest number go sites but it also traverses great distances. Nazret and Addis Abeba may be over capacity as well. This information is presumed accurate for distribution between each warehouse and their corresponding distinction; however, this analysis was not privy to specific details, including: if there are multiple vehicles that can operate simultaneously in varying directions, capacity of each warehouse, or airplane runway access to initially supply each warehouse.
Planning for Internally Displaced Persons (IDP) Camps in Uganda
Planning for internally displaced persons (IDPs) is both complicated and subjective. In the case of this map, four suitability criteria were considered to show areas most for camps: gradient, market accessibility, road accessibility & safety. Other factors could have been considered if available, inlcuding areas of fresh water sources, access to health care facilities and soil type.
A weighted overlay was generated to create a map showing various degrees go suitability (0-100% scale). After research and carefully consideration, the four criteria were given weights to sum a value of ten to produce a suitable outcome.
Note: UXO = unexploded ordnance sites (red diamonds), are explosive weapons (bombs, bullets, shells, grenades, landmines, etc.) that did not explode when they were employed and still pose a risk of detonation.